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Ventricular-Arterial Coupling (Ea/Ees Ratio)

Ventricular-arterial coupling (VAC) refers to the relationship between the heart's ability to pump blood (ventricular function) and the arterial system's ability to receive and transport the blood (arterial load or elastance). This coupling is a crucial determinant of cardiovascular efficiency and function.

Key Components

  1. Arterial Elastance (Ea): Reflects the arterial load (elastance) the heart must overcome to eject blood. It is influenced by factors such as arterial compliance and resistance. It is calculated by the end-diastolic pressure divided by the stroke volume, and it equals the heart rate multiplied by the resistance.

  2. End-Systolic Elastance (Ees): Represents the contractile strength of the ventricle at the end of systole. It is a measure of ventricular stiffness and contractility. It is calculated by the end-systolic pressure divided by (end-systolic volume- the volume at pressure of zero in the ventricle).

Ea/Ees Ratio
Ea/Ees Ratio

Ea/Ees Ratio

The ratio of Ea to Ees (Ea/Ees) is a critical determinant of the heart's efficiency and performance:

Normal Ea/Ees Ratio: Approximately 0.6 for both systemic and pulmonary circulations.

There is an inverse Relationship with EF and SV:

  • As Ea/Ees increases (due to an increase in Ea or decrease in Ees), ventricular-arterial uncoupling occurs, leading to a decrease in ejection fraction (EF) and stroke volume (SV).

  • Conversely, as Ea/Ees decreases (due to a decrease in Ea or an increase in Ees), ventricular-arterial coupling improves, leading to an increase in EF and SV.

Impact on End-Systolic Pressure (Pes)

The absolute values of Ea and Ees also impact the end-systolic pressure (Pes):

  • Equal Increase in Ea and Ees: If both Ea and Ees increase equally, Pes increases, but EF and SV remain unchanged.

  • Equal Decrease in Ea and Ees: If both Ea and Ees decrease equally, Pes decreases, but EF and SV remain unchanged.

Clinical Implications

Understanding VAC is essential in clinical settings for:

  • Assessing Cardiac Function: Helps in evaluating how well the heart is functioning relative to the arterial system.

  • Managing Heart Failure: Guides therapeutic strategies to optimize both ventricular function and arterial load.

  • Tailoring Treatments: Interventions can be directed to improve coupling by modifying either ventricular contractility or arterial load, depending on the patient's condition.


Ventricular-arterial coupling is a dynamic interplay between ventricular contractility and arterial load. The Ea/Ees ratio is a key metric in assessing this coupling, with significant implications for cardiac performance, particularly in conditions like heart failure. Maintaining an optimal Ea/Ees ratio is crucial for preserving efficient cardiovascular function.

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